skip to main content
Shelley Ladd Staff Photo


Genetic Study Guide Answers Posted  

I have posted the Genetics Study Guide Answers under File Manager.  Look in the 2017 - 2018 Folder.  These are due at the beginning of your class tomorrow.

Matter and Energy Review  

The two Jeopardy games I made for review for your Matter and Energy Test tomorrow are uploaded under presentations.

Articles for McMush Pre-Lab  

The articles for the McMush Pre-Lab questions are under file manager.

ACT Practice

Links for Jeopardy Games for Classification Test  
Round 1:

Round 2:

Plants Unit Study Guide Answers  

Here's the answers to the study guide.  Complete it and study.  Test tomorrow!

 Plant Study Guide


1.       Which direction do materials move through xylem? Through phloem?

Xylem – water moves from roots to leaves; Phloem – sugar moves from leaves to roots

2.       What is a plant root’s purpose in the movement of materials?

Absorb water and nutrients from soil and send them to leaves for photosynthesis.


3.       What type of material is transported by xylem? By phloem?

Xylem – water;  Phloem – sugar


4.       How does water move from the roots to the leaves?  Describe steps in the process.

Through transpiration.  Water evaporates from a stomata in a leaf and other water molecules are pulled up through the xylem by cohesion.

5.       What is transpiration?  Give an example.

Evaporation through leaves.  Water in a vase goes down.

Structure: Explain the function of the following structures

1.       Carpel – female reproductive part of plant

2.       Petal – colorful, leaflike part that attracts birds and insects

3.       Sepal – leaflike parts that enclose flower bud

4.       Stamen – male reproductive part of plant that holds pollen

5.       Flower – holds pollen and attracts pollinators

6.       Fruit – mature ovary that contains a seed

7.       Thylakoid – location of light-dependent reactions

8.       Stroma – location of light-independent reactions

9.       Stomata – pores in leaf that allow water and gas exchange

10.   Pistil – contains one or more carpels



1.       What is the balanced equation?

6H2O + 6 CO2 à C6H12O6 + 6O2

2.       What color of light is least used in photosynthesis? Are best absorbed? Least – green; best - red


3.       When is each reactant used during photosynthesis?

Water is used in the light-dependent reactions and CO2 is used in the light-independent


4.       What are the products of photosynthesis?  When are they made?

Glucose is made during the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle) when NADPH, ATP, and CO2 combine.  Oxygen is made during the light-dependent reactions when water is split.


5.       Why do we need NADPH and ATP in photosynthesis?  Be specific.

They are needed to fuel the light-independent reactions.  They combine CO2 from the atmosphere with a 3 or 4C molecule in the Calvin cycle to make glucose.


6.       What is the site of the light-dependent reaction? Light-independent reaction?

Light-dependent = thylakoid membrane of chloroplast; light-independent = stroma of chloroplast

Cellular Respiration:

1.       What is the balanced equation for cellular respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 à 6H2O + 6CO2


2.       How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related to each other?

They are mirror-images of each other.  The reactants of one reaction are the products of the other and vice versa.

3.       In which steps of cellular respiration are ATP formed?

All steps: Glycolysis (2 ATP), Krebs Cycle (2 ATP), and Electron Transport Chain (34 ATP).


4.       What does each type of fermentation produce?

Alcoholic = alcohol, CO2, and 2 ATP;  Lactic Acid = lactic acid and 2 ATP

5.       What molecule allows for muscle contraction?  What happens when a muscle runs out of this molecule?

ATP allows for muscle contraction.  If the muscle runs out of ATP, then it enters anaerobic respiration, specifically lactic acid fermentation, which produces lactic acid build up in the muscle making it sore.


6.       Where does each part of cellular respiration take place?

Glycolysis = cytoplasm; Krebs Cycle = inner mitochondrial matrix; ETC = Inner mitochondrial membrane


Environmental Factors:

1.       What is the difference between a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?

Gymnosperm – means “naked seed” so they don’t have seeds in fruit, instead seeds are in cones. Ex. Cycads, pines, Ginkgo.

Angiosperm – seeds are in fruit.

2.       What environmental factors cause plants to grow more in the summer than in the winter?

More direct sunlight and warmer temperature.

3.       Why are photosynthetic organisms important to the environment?

They turn the sun’s energy into energy that heterotrophs can use, and they release oxygen needed by heterotrophs.

4.       How would each of the following factors affect the rate of photosynthesis:

a.       Too little sunlight: decreases

b.      Too little carbon dioxide: decreases

c.       Too little oxygen: no affect



1.       Define complete dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, and multiple alleles.  How can you tell them apart?

Complete dominance – the dominant allele completely masks the recessive allele.  Ex. AA – red, Aa-red, aa – white

Incomplete dominance – the dominant allele only partially masks the recessive allele.  Ex. AA – red, Aa – pink, aa – white

Codominance – both dominant alleles are expressed in the heterozygous phenotype.  Ex. AA – red, AW – red and white (roan), WW – white

Multiple alleles – three or more alleles for a particular gene.  Ex. Blood type has A, B, AB, and O.


2.       List the levels of organization from subatomic particle to organism.

Subatomic particle – atom – molecule – organelle – cell – tissue – organ – organ system - organism


3.       What factors are important in good experimental design?

Repeatable, multiple trials, hypothesis can be tested, only one variable changes, and you have a control group.


Biochemistry Review Sheet Answers Published!  

The answers to the Biochemistry Review Sheet are under File Manager in the Pre-AP Biology Assignments folder.  Get the answers, study, and bring your study guide to turn in for a grade tomorrow.

McMush Pre-Lab Articles  

The articles are located under File Manager in the Folder Pre-AP Biology Assignments.  Have a great weekend.  Finish your pre-lab questions before you come to class on Monday or you will miss valuable lab time.

EOC Review Stations  

The EOC Review Stations are all loaded under File Manager.  Go study!

EOC Review Materials  

I have posted several review PowerPoint presentations and practice questions on my website.  Look under File Manager.  There is an entire section of EOC Review Materials.  Study hard.

Picture to Go With Respiration Review  

Attached is the graphic for Station #1 of the review for 03-25-2016.



EOC Plant Study Guide Answers  

A few of these may be out of order, but they are chunked by topic.  Study.  Your test is tomorrow.


EOC Plant Review Answer Key

Movement of Materials:

·         Vascular System (p. 614, 643-645) – collection of specialized tissues that bring water and mineral nutrients up from the roots and disperse sugars down from the leaves

o   Xylem – moves water and dissolved minerals up from roots to the rest of the plant. Tissue is dead when water moves through it.

o   Phloem – moves the products of photosynthesis out of the leaves to stems and roots. Tissue is living.

·         Capillary Action – tendency of water to rise in a hollow tube.

·         Transpiration – the loss of water vapor from plants

·         Cohesion – ability of water molecules to stick to other water molecules. Allows water to move up the xylem.

·         Adhesion – ability of water to stick to other molecules. Allows phloem to move sugars down the plant and water to stick to the sides of xylem when moving up.

·         Stomata – tiny holes in leaves which close to prevent water loss or open to allow air to move in and out.

Monocot (p. 626)                                             vs.                              Dicot: (p. 626)

-          Flowering plants whose embryos                                             - flowering plants whose embryos

have one seed leaf                                                                         have two seed leaves

-          Have parallel veins in long, narrow leaves                             - have leaves with netlike veins

-          Flower parts occur in multiples of 3                                          - flower parts occur in multiples of 3 or 5

-          Vascular tissues are scattered throughout stem                - vascular tissues are arranged in rings

-          Ex. corn, wheat, rice, grasses, irises, lilies                              - Ex. most deciduous trees (lose leaves in

fall) and peanuts

     Gymnosperm (p. 621-622)                               vs.                            Angiosperm: (p. 621-622)

-          Seeds not in fruit                                                                              - seeds in fruit

-          Most are cone-bearing and evergreen                                      - aka flowering plants

-          Ex. Cycads, Ginko, and conifers (pines)                                     -Ex. Peach tree, dogwood, maple tree

Functions of Plant Parts: (p. 79, 688-670)

·         Cell wall – a rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to the plant cell.

·         Chloroplast – organelles that carry out photosynthesis.

·         Sepals – modified leaves that protect the developing flower. Usually green but can be brightly colored.

·         Petals – modified leaves just inside the sepals which are brightly colored to attract animal pollinators.

·         Stamen – male structure of a flower.

o   Filament – a stalk which supports an anther.

o   Anther – produce pollen grains, the male gametophyte.

·         Carpel – the female structure of a flower and is found in the innermost layer of a flower.

o   Stigma – the tip, which is covered with a sticky substance that holds pollen grains when they land there.

o   Style – a tube that leads from the stigma to the ovary.

o   Ovary – produces the female gametophyte and is found at the base of the flower.

·         Seed – (p. 614) structure used by some land plants to store and protect the embryo.

o   Endosperm – a food supply for the developing embryo.

o   Seed coat – protects the embryo.

·         Fruit (p. 622) – the mature ovary of a seed or the fluff surrounding dandelion seeds

Plant Reproduction: (p. 671)

1.       Male and female gametophytes: pollen grains, the male gametophytes, are produced in anthers. The flower’s ovary contains many ovules, which can each contain a female gametophyte.

2.       Pollination: A bee may transfer pollen grains from one flower’s anther to another flower’s stigma. One cell of a pollen grain divides to form two sperm. The other cell forms a tube, down which the sperm travel.

3.       Double fertilization: One sperm fertilizes the egg, which develops into an embryo. The other sperm unites with the polar nuclei to form the endosperm. The outer layer of the ovule becomes a protective seed coat.

4.       Seeds and fruit: Many seeds develop inside the ovary of each flower. While the seeds develop, the ovary tissue develops into the juicy flesh of a fruit. A few seeds will find their way into the soil to grow into new plants.

Pigments and Light: (p. 103)

·         Chlorophyll – light absorbing pigment found in the chloroplasts of plant cells

o   Light absorption – mostly red and blue wavelengths

o   Light reflection – mostly green, since chlorophyll doesn’t absorb it very well

Photosynthesis: (p. 104-105)

·         Takes place: in the chloroplasts found in leaves and stems of plants

·         Light dependent reactions – must have light to work

o   Takes place: thylakoid membrane (grana) of the chloroplast

o   Needed: sunlight and 6 water molecules (comes from the roots and is transported up to the leaves)

o   Made: energy (ATP – needed to power the light independent reactions; comes from sunlight) and 6 oxygen molecules (comes from the breakdown of water and is released into the atmosphere)

·         Light Independent reactions

o   Takes place: stroma (space inside the chloroplast between the thylakoid membrane)

o   Needed: energy (comes from light dependent reactions), 6 carbon dioxide molecules (comes from atmosphere and needed to make sugars)

o   Made: 1 sugar molecule (glucose)

·         The equation for the reaction:

6 H2O + 6 CO2 à C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Evolution Test Corrections Uploaded  

All the materials you need to complete your test corrections are located under File Manager.  They are in the category "Evolution Test Correction Packet".

Heterotrophs vs. Autotrophs Articles  

The reading that goes with the Heterotroph vs. Autotrophs Cornell Notes is posted under Presentations.

Dihybrid Cross Practice Problems  

I did the four practice problems that were assigned Friday and scanned my work.  They are posted under Presentations.  Look over them to help you walk through the homework if you are having trouble or to check your answers.  See everyone tomorrow!

DNA Origami Instructions  

Instructions for how to complete folding the DNA Origami molecule are posted under File Manager in Electronic Copies of Documents 2015 - 2016.  Have a great weekend.

Biochemistry Stations Answer Key  

A little bonus for those that were giving it your all today during review Bingo.  You're welcome.  Study hard!

Biochemistry Review Stations

Station #1: Atoms, Ions, and Bonding

A)     How many valence electrons are in the following elements:

a.       C - 4                       b. H - 1                 c. Si - 4                  d. F - 7                  e. Be - 2


B)      Why is it the electrons that move to and from atoms to form ions instead of protons? __The electrons orbit outside the nucleus and can move from the atom more easily than protons._______________________________________________________________________

C)      Will the following elements form ionic or covalent bonds?

a.       Na and Cl: __ionic______________

b.      C and O: ____covalent_________________

c.       C and H: ___covalent__________________

d.      Li and Cl: ___ionic__________________

e.      S and O: ___covalent___________________

D)     Explain why the atomic mass of an isotope will change, but not the overall charge. ___Neutrons have mass but do not have any charge. ____________________________________

Station #2: Organic Molecules – Carbohydrates and Lipids

I.        Organic Compounds: Larger, more complex chemicals. Always contain the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Synthesized from simpler substances (monomers).

A)     What are the characteristics of all organic compounds?

·         _Contain carbon and hydrogen_______________________________

·         _Held together by covalent bonds_____________________________

·         _Carbon bonds can form many shapes__________________________

B)      Carbohydrates:

1.       Elements in Carbohydrates: __Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen__________

2.       Ratio of Carbon to Hydrogen to Oxygen: ___1:2:1____________________

3.       Monomer: _monosaccharides___________

4.       Functions:

·         _main source of energy for living things (to manufacture ATP)_________

·         _provides structure for plants (cellulose)__________________________

C)      Lipids:

1.       Elements in Lipids: _Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen_________________________

2.       Examples: _fats, oils, waxes, and steroids__________________________________

3.       Monomer: _fatty acids_________________________

4.       Functions:

·         _energy source___________________________________________________________

·         _waterproofing___________________________________________________________

·         _steroids___________________________________________________________

·         _hormones___________________________________________________________

Station #3: Organic Molecules – Proteins, Nucleic Acids, and ATP

D)     Proteins: Complex compounds that carry out all the body’s activities.

1.       Elements in Proteins:   _Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur_______________________________________________________

2.       Monomer: _Amino Acids________________

3.       After water, proteins are the most plentiful substances in the body.

4.       Have many different functions as determined by their _shape__________.

5.       Lock and Key Model: Proteins must have the right shape to “fit” with other molecules.

·         Changing the shape of a protein will change what it can interact with its function.

E)      Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA): Make up genes and chromosomes.

1.       Elements in Nucleic Acids: _Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus_________

2.       Monomer: __nucleotides___________________________________________________

3.       Functions:

·         _contains and transmits genetic material of the organism______________________

F)      ATP: the molecule that provides cells with energy

1.       Draw an ATP molecule below and label the three phosphate groups:



2.       When a phosphate group is removed, energy is ___released____________________.

3.       When a phosphate group is added, energy is _____stored____________________.

Station #4: pH and Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

G)     Acids and Bases: Used for different functions in body (such as digestion).

·         Measured by the pH scale

·         Acids are high in:             Hydrogen (H+)                 or            Hydroxide (OH-) ions

·         Bases are high in:             Hydrogen (H+)                  or            Hydroxide (OH-) ions

·         Every number on the pH scale represents a change in a power of ___10_______.

·         pH can affect rates of chemical reactions

·         Enzymes- act as catalysts, controlling all chemical reactions in the body.

·         High temperatures will cause enzymes to denature (lose their shape) and stop functioning. This is why high fevers are dangerous.

H)     Chemical Reactions


1.       Label the activation energy (energy of activation) in the picture above.

2.       Why is the catalyzed reaction line shorter? __The enzyme catalyzing the reaction lowers the activation energy.____________________________________________________________

3.       Label the reactants and products in the chemical reaction below:

·         C6H12O6 + 6O2 à 6H2O + 6CO2

Reactants                 Products

4.       Balance the equation below:

·              2 H2O2       à     2 H2O     +       O2

Station #5: Memory Lane (Review from last test)

A)     Math in Science:

a.       Explain how to find the mean (average) of a group of 5 numbers.

Add all the values and divide by the number of values (five in this case)

b.      Which SI unit is used to measure length? __meters__________

c.       Which SI unit is used to measure mass? ___grams___________

d.      Which SI unit is used to measure volume? __liters___________

e.      Write the combination of letter used to remember metric conversions and what prefix each letter stands for.

Kilo   Hecto       Deka   Origin   Deci   Centi   Milli



B)      Experimental Design:

a.       What is the difference between an independent and a dependent variable?

The independent variable is the variable that the experimenter manipulates. The dependent variable is the variable measured to determine the effect of the manipulation.

b.      Why does an experiment need a large sample size?

To gather more accurate and reliable representation of your group


c.       What are the steps of scientific thinking (see Chapter 1 in the book if you have forgotten)?

Make observation

Create a Hypothesis

Perform the Experiment

Analyze and Interpret Data

Evaluate Results

Biochemistry Study Guide Answers  

Biochemistry Review Sheet


Atoms and Ions


·         What subatomic particle is different in isotopes?

o   neutrons


·         An element has an atomic number of 82 and atomic mass of 208. How many neutrons does this element have?

o   126


·         Which subatomic particle is different in atoms and ions?

o   electrons



·         What type of bond forms between oxygen and carbon?

o   covalent


·         What is the maximum number of covalent bonds that can form between a carbon atom and a hydrogen atom(s)?

o   4


·         What type of bond has the most energy?

o   covalent


·         What factor determines the polarity of a bond between atoms?

o   The difference in attraction between electrons


·         What type of bond forms between atoms of organic molecules?

o   covalent



pH and Chemical Equations


·         What pH has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-)?

o   14


·         What pH has an equal amount of H+ and OH- ions?

o   7         



·         If pH increases from 2 to 4, how does the hydrogen concentration change?

o   Decrease by a factor of 100


·         A student adds an acid solution to a non-buffered sugar solution. What will happen to hydroxide ion (OH-) concentration? The hydrogen ion (H+) concentration?

o   Hydroxide ion concentration will decrease

o   Hydrogen ion concentration will increase


·         What is the balanced equation for photosynthesis (CO2 + H2O à C6H12O6 + O2)?

o   6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2




·         If you increase enzyme concentration, then what happens to the reaction?

o   The reaction rate increases (speeds up)


·         What happens to the concentration of enzymes at the end of a reaction?

o   Nothing; the concentration remains the same


·         How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?

o   By lowering activation energy


·         According to the induced fit model of enzyme function, what do competitive inhibitors do?

o   They bond to the enzyme’s active site so that the substrate cannot


·         An enzyme breaks down amino acids. What biomolecule does this enzyme break down?

o   Proteins


·         An enzyme in the human stomach breaks down proteins. Antacids increase the stomach’s pH and causes the enzyme to be less efficient. Why?

o   The enzyme changes shape so it cannot complete its function as efficiently



Organic Molecules and ATP


·         Organic molecules always contain what element?

o   Carbon (and hydrogen)          


·         Where does ATP store energy?

o   The phosphate – phosphate bonds     


·         Why are organic molecules diverse?

o   Carbon molecules can bond to form many different shapes


·         What molecule provides energy for muscle contraction?

o   ATP


·         What functional group is found only in amino acids?

o   Amine (-NH2)



·         What are the monomers for each polymer? (4 total)

o   Polymer                       Monomer

o   Carbohydrates             monosaccharides

o   Lipids                          Fatty Acids

o   Proteins                       Amino Acids

o   Nucleic Acids             Nucleotides




Metric System

·         If you travel 6 miles, then how many kilometers have you traveled? 1 mi = 1.6 km

o   9.6 miles


·         What unit of measurement would you use to find the surface area of a pond?

o   Square meters


·         If you scored the following on your biology tests for the year (90%, 83%, 68%, 37%, and 72%), what is your test mean?

o   70%


·         A scientist measured the change in mass of decomposing plants. What SI unit is the most appropriate?

o   kilograms


·         What is the average height of the flowers: 3 cm, 7 cm, 11 cm, 9 cm, 23 cm, 1 cm

o   7.33 cm


·         What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable?

o   The independent variable is the variable that the experimenter is manipulating. The dependent variable is the variable measured to see the effect of that manipulation.

Common Assessment 1 Study Guide Answers  

The answers to the first study guide are now posted under Electronic Copies of Assignments 2015 - 2016.  If you have any questions, e-mail me.

First Common Assessment Tomorrow`  

Your first common assessment is tomorrow!!  There are extra review materials on the website under Presentations. 

Welcome to Class!  

Hi and welcome to a new year at HHS.  I have updated the supply list and class schedule on my web page.  I have also uploaded the course syllabus and other class documents under File Manager under the heading Electronic Copies of Assignments.  I plan on putting all assignments online so that students can get an extra copy of anything missing.

Please explore this webpage and let me know if there's is anything else you would like me to include.  If possible I will include it on here.


-Ms. Ladd

Announcement Image for Welcome to Class!